Hansen, Frank-Peter. Das älteste Systemprogramm des deutschen Idealismus. Rezeptionsgeschichte und Interpretation. Series:Quellen und Studien zur. Das älteste Systemprogramm des deutschen Idealismus ist der Titel eines kurzen Textes, dessen Verfasser nicht zweifelsfrei feststeht. Seit seiner Entdeckung. Das Älteste Systemprogramm des Deutschen Idealismus, Ein Handschriftlicher Fund [a Fragment of G.W.F. Hegel]. Franz Rosenzweig. (). Like.

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Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Art and Politics at the Origin of German Idealism: Siani Art and politics at the origin of German Idealism: Ars vitae und ars moriendi Am Beispiel der Allokation von Spenderorganen in der Transplantationsmedizin This paper presents a few introductive historical and philological outlines about the text followed by its interpretation from the point of view idealiwmus the link between art and politics.

The advantage of choosing right this point of view will hopefully become clear at the systejprogramm of the paper. Given the philosophical aim of this paper, only a brief account of the historical vicissitudes and philological controversies concerning the mentioned text is presented as follows: Although the handwriting had been recognized as Hegelian, Rosenzweig, both for philosophical and philological reasons, stated that Hegel had only transcribed it, and ascribed it to Schelling instead.

However, convincing evidence systemproframm a definitive attribution to any of these philosophers is still lacking.

Siani 51 Uncertainty also exists about the exact period when the text was written with dates ranging from to The history of the fragment could be considered a philosophical systemprogrammm especially by having a closer look at the text vicissitudes.

The Oldest Systematic Program of German Idealism

During the Second World War, the Nazis, for fear of sas or loss during air raids, moved it away from Berlin. After the War, it was considered lost, although there were signs of its existence leading to Cracow, Poland. However, the communist authorities refused to give any further details on its whereabouts until the end of the seventies when they finally gave access to it thanks to the attempts by, among others, Dieter Henrich, who stressed the ideallsmus and democratic elements of the text to persuade the communist authorities.

During this entire period, only an old photographic picture, possibly taken by Rosenzweig deutschdn and subsequently inherited first by Ludwig Strauss and later by Martin Buber, was available to scholars. The document is now readily accessible in many critical editions and in different ltesste, and every little aspect of it has been thoroughly investigated4.

The very controversies about the authorship actually give rise to a web of questions and thoughts which makes the attribution question nearly irrelevant compared with the philosophical issues that the text may raise. The heart of these issues will now be directly dealt with.

First of all, as already mentioned, the link between art and politics will be examined.

Arthur Liebert, Das älteste Systemprogramm des deutschen Idealismus – PhilPapers

Although well aware of the importance of other philosophical matters oteste in the text, such as ethics, physics, religion and the philosophy of history, this writer considers that the main approach to the same should nevertheless be the link between art and politics.

In fact, the common point which brings together the different topics in the text is a political one, that is: Siani 52 author is, first and foremost, dealing with a political problem which, on the other hand, finds its solution in the text principally on the ground of art and aesthetics. According to their first interpreters and, of course, idealismjs the later Hegelian philosophy of history and of rightthese two events share both magnificence and critical shortcomings.

Emphasizing the typical Enlightenment doctrine of the rational, free and autonomous self-law-giving nature of man, the two events aimed at freeing him systemprogrsmm superstition, fear of authority, and from both religious and political prejudices. The text itself could never have been written without the author having read these letters.

In systemproramm work, Schiller carries out a comprehensive and passionate analysis of the woes of his time and identifies their origin in a double separation: In his third Critique, the Critique of Judgment which Schiller highly appreciatedanyway, Kant had already laid the basis of a possible reconciliation between reason and sensibility.


The main expression of this reconciliation was to be found in the field of aesthetic phenomena, that is in natural and artistic beauty and in the sublime.

There is a very clear reason for that: Siani 53 side, hence they could only appreciate moral goodness. Human beings are placed between these two extremes and beauty is their characteristic. We can deutscben speak of an anthropological primacy of beauty. Schiller goes even further by opening the way to a political and philosophical ded of beauty.

In his third Letter, he underlines the problem of reforming the State mechanism even given the impossibility of stopping it. Without fulfilling this task, no revolution will ever be able to restore and establish a durable and peaceful age of happiness, individual self-realization and collective moral development.

Ancient Greece was the world of immediate and spontaneous harmony between reason and sensibility, between ltestte and gods and between the individual and the community.

This challenge can only be taken up by art and aesthetic education. The ideal pattern for this strategy is to be found in a world in which this beautiful, harmonic conciliation already existed ancient Greece and should now be restored.

So, all ideas, that is all rational concepts, find their unity only in the idea of beauty and, to be more exact, the two traditional general domains of philosophy, i. From ltexte Kantian perspective, the previous point should be clear: In the above mentioned Critiques, the two domains are scrupulously kept separated, whereas the Critique of Judgment throws a bridge systemmprogramm them on the basis of beauty and teleology.

This argument goes as far as bringing ddutschen and science into a final merge into poetry: If beauty and art are able to unify reason and sensibility, goodness and truth, it must then be assumed that they can also bring together the social classes, that is the cultured-ruling one with the ieealismus one. This coming together shall be driven from both sides, and not merely lay in the acculturation 6 See also Gethmann-Siefert b. As for quotations, I use the English translation by Harris pp.

I refer to the text through a paragraphs numbering idezlismus can also be found in this translation. Siani 55 of the popular class: But not only does the great mob need it, the philosopher udealismus it too.

The topic is so shifted to religion: Of course, the author is wise enough not to simply call for the restoration of this kind of religion.

The argument is definitely more refined: That is, the monotheism of Kantian and Enlightenment reason and moral has to find its expression in a diversity of artistic and imaginative forms. Only so, both cultured and popular classes may find a point of mutual acknowledgement and share the beautiful embodiment of spiritual values, political behaviors and historical memory capable of pleasing both reason and sensibility.

No need here to dutschen on the strong difference between the young and the mature Hegel with regard to Christianity, which in all later works and lectures is qualified as the bearer of the principle of modernity, that is, of subjective and universal freedom.

During those years, but also after they left the college and separated, they kept a close friendship, enriched by intellectual exchanges, political discussion and critique. The argument against the dogmatism of Idealimus religion has its counterpart in the framework of a new kind of religion on the example of the Greek popular- aesthetic one, but which shall be pervaded by modern reason concepts like, above all, moral ideas.

Siani 56 critique on religion, is recognized by the author himself as something plainly original: This is the programmatic heart of the text. Both sides, the rational core de its mythological existence, are essential to the framework. The text goes on as follows: Once this plan has been carried out, its consequences will come automatically and autonomously: The final reconciliation will be peaceful and spontaneous, without violence or terror: For these reasons, this revolution through art will bring a durable and untroubled state of happiness and moral development: No more the look of scorn, no more the blind trembling of the people before its wise men and priests.


Then first awaits us equal development of all powers, of the single man and of all individuals alike. The questions that the French Revolution and the Kantian philosophy had raised but left open in many respects, are finally given an answer. The elaboration made by the text considered in this paper although not exhaustively discussed here is so, with its need for the reconciliation of reason and sensibility, the starting point of German Idealism albeit only the starting point.

The project of a mythology of reason, as original as it may be, raises another, maybe bigger but obvious udealismus, that is: The fragment of text concludes: It must not necessarily be assumed that the author awaits a miraculous intervention; it could also here be meant a political personality or an enlightened leader. However, as a matter of fact, the main problem of who should establish this new mythology is left unresolved.

As much as passionate the diagnosis and progressive the therapy may be, the beginning deutscchen the treatment is deferred to an utopian future. This utopian exit strategy to the pressing problem of modern alienation and oppression is not only due to the passion and lack of experience of the young author or authors of the text, but it lies in the chosen approach to the solution.

The possibility of embodying Kantian moral ideas into a mythological- aesthetical complex is in no way guaranteed, and, in spite of good intentions, it would rather appear to be an external intellectual undertaking lowered from above by the cultured class.

It is pointless trying to restore a spiritual form belonging to a past phase of history into a totally different situation and under totally different premises. Idralismus outcome will be utopian and pointless at best, and even dangerous at worst, that is, in case of a betrayal of the rational premises e.

It is not by accident that Hegel will always resolutely refuse to speak of art as a still ltewte and powerful spiritual form; in his system, art will on the contrary be the first, most simple and obsolete form of the absolute spirit, already superseded by revealed religion that is, Christian and more exactly Protestant religion and philosophy.

In the modern complex, rational, fragmented, individualistic-bourgeois world the role of art and beauty can only be a very partial and non-conclusive one8.

Even in his Berlin Lectures on aesthetics Hegel retains a critical, formative and conscience-making function of art9.

Most importantly, the need for an organic form of knowledge and harmonic view of our world, which 8 See Gethmann-Siefert a. Siani 58 he first thought to have found in the pattern of the Greek polis, will lead him throughout the conceptualization of his philosophical system as an Encyclopedia of philosophical sciences, that is as an organic whole, a cycle where the end reaches to and stays together with the beginning. This need for unity and overcoming of the opposites can well be seen as one of the legacies of the early longing for the lost harmonic complex of art and politics.

In the end, harmonic unity shall again be achieved, not through art, but through the reflective form of the philosophical-rational idea: Vorfragen zum Zurechnungsproblem, in Bubner hrsg.

Die Mythos-Auffassung des jungen Hegelin Systrmprogramm. Ein handschriftlicher Fund, now in Jamme – Schneider hrsg.

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