Abstract. A 3-yr study was conducted in California’s southern San Joaquin Valley to determine the overwintering survival of the corn leafhopper, Dalbulus maidis. The corn leafhopper, Dalbulus maidis (Delong and Wolcott) is found only in subtropical and tropical areas of America. Its host range is limited to maize and its . The corn leafhopper, Dalbulus maidis (DeLong & Wolcott) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), is one of the most important pests of corn, Zea mays L. (Poaceae), in Latin.
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The presence of S.
Since that outbreak, corn leafhopper was not reported again until the late s Bushing and BurtonBushing et al. L Jr, Hepner L. Dalbupus was added at room temperature under moist conditions and incubated for min depending on the rapidity of response.
maize leafhopper (Dalbulus maidis)
Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic. Leafhoppers trapped after 20 March of all 3 yr overlapped with newly planted corn.
Evolutionary relationship between maize leafhoppers and their host plants. Volunteer plants were determined to be a critical key in leafhopper overwintering, and consequently, the survival of S.
Purcell noted that D. Volunteers extended the season by as much as 2 mo, thus shortening the period of time the leafhoppers were forced to go without a food source. Genetic Structure of Maidiz trifolii Diptera: California Agricultural Commissioners Office. The warmer conditions may have contributed dalbulua an increase in the number of infected sentinel plants.
View large Download slide. Plants were watered as necessary.
Infected leafhoppers recovered in March were capable of transmitting the spiroplasma to newly planted corn, which overlapped with the time frame in which the infected leafhoppers were recovered. Generally, subfreezing temperatures last only a few hours. Honeydew and sooty mould accumulates on heavily infested plants.
Maidiw commercial re-use, please contact journals.
We found overwintering D. During warm winters such maidiethe spiroplasma is capable of surviving the winter in volunteer plants that do not completely freeze. Cicadellidae infestation and achaparramiento disease. The winter November through March of designated average was fairly normal for the region; mean temperature was 0.
It is evident from the sticky card collections throughout the three winters during which this study was conducted that D.
It would seem reasonable that leafhoppers migrating north from Mexico would infest corn planted in its path as it progressed northward. D-vac suctions proved a miadis technique for recovering leafhoppers.
It furthers the University’s objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. There was a general trend for an increased percentage of males surviving the winter over the 3 yr.
In other areas of the United States, investigators have speculated that infestations came from elsewhere as dwlbulus. Thus, the period of time when corn is not available may be as little as 2 mo. Some of these morphological features are now being re-described, while others have been observed for the first time in the Cicadellidae family, as the center-flagellar material.
Although the corn stunt spiroplasma has been found in mustard, Sinapis alba L. At least one, if not all three, of these pathogens have been reported present wherever the corn leafhopper is found. Vernon provided information on corn acreage in Tulare and Kings Counties.
Their spermatozoa measured maidiz Biological studies on the corn leafhopper Dalbulus maidis Insecta-Cicadellidae in Tucuman, Argentina. Beginning with the outbreak, D.
Spiroplasma kunkelii is both circulative and propagative within the leafhopper vector Alivizatos and MarkhamHogenhout and OzbekOzbek et al. Corn leafhopper overwintering biology was never investigated. Dalbulus maidis does not enter diapause or another state of dormancy during the Mexican winter Larsen et al. Plants were cut at ground level, transported to the laboratory where they were chilled to slow leafhopper movement, and examined for the presence of adults and nymphs. Our finding of spiroplasma-infected leafhoppers throughout the winter combined with findings of infected sentinel plants during the winter months and infected early spring planted seedlings Table 2 indicates that the spiroplasma successfully overwintered within the leafhopper itself and was successfully transmitted to early spring planted corn.