In the present work, experiments were carried out to determine the suitability and usefulness of both fresh and dried Azolla as biofertilizer for Scotch Bonnet. Azolla biofertilizer may be a promising approach to achieve better N use efficiency (NUE) in paddy rice fields due to its great potential for biological N fixation. A field study was conducted to observe the effect of Azolla on rice yield, N uptake and its residual effect on subsequent wheat crop. Azolladeveloped into a thick.

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Experiment started on Dec. During the summer months, numerous spherical structures called sporocarps form on the undersides of the branches. From this perspective, the rice field system could be an interesting application, since the large-scale water use and repeated monoculture can in the long-term involve risk of the accumulation of pollutants in the soil.

Azolla has microscopic male and female gametophytes that develop inside the male and biofdrtilizer spores.

Azolla – Wikipedia

The dry weights of the whole shoot also showed increases similar to fruit yield. The plants are small usually only a few cm across and float, but can be very abundant and form large mats. The extreme of the date intervals is included. Curiously, microspores tend to adhere in clumps called massulae.

America’s Wetland Resource Center. Fresh weight was evaluated every seven days and weight determinations azollq made after drying Azolla biomass with blotting paper. Means and Standard Deviations of Carbon and Nitrogen contents d. Azolla is a small water fern that grows on the surface of water bodies or on moist soil.


One FAO study describes how azolla integrates into a tropical biomass agricultural system, reducing the need for inputs.

Belmont, California, Wadsworth Publishing Co. At 13 days, the fresh weight of biofertklizer samples treated with Cinosulfuron had shown slight increase of biomass in respect to initial inoculum.

International Journal of Agronomy

It can remove lead from solutions containing 1— ppm. During the entire period, the water lost through evapo-transpiration was replenished every day biofertilzer deionized water and the nutrient content in the solution was continuously controlled and maintained at a constant level.

Azolla filiculoides is one of just two fern species for which a reference genome has been published.

It is a valuable cash crop for small farmers who supply ws of the fruit needed for processing and export. Male spores microspores are extremely small and are produced inside each microsporangium.


International Rice Research Institute in the Philippines. The typical limiting factor on its growth is phosphorusanother essential mineral. Views Read Edit View history.

The winter experiment, carried out to evaluate cold resistance through growth analysis of the 5 strains, started on Dec.

Like all ferns, sexual reproduction leads to spore formation, but Azolla sets itself apart from other members of its group by producing two kinds. It is a very common native aquatic plant in Tasmania. A well-aggregated soil tills easily that is well aerated and able to produce even more organic matter. They are extremely reduced in form and specialized, looking nothing like other typical ferns but more resembling duckweed or some mosses.


Available bibliographical data on its environmental development are principally related to experiments carried out in Asian countries [ 1 — 3 ]. Every biofeetilizer of which RGR is calculated, is reported on -axis.

FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture technical paper, As an additional benefit to its role as a paddy biofertilizer, Azolla spp. Moreover, to use the fern as a biofertilizer in conventional farming, not just in organic farming, some resistance to the most popular herbicides is required.

Inorganic nitrogen fertilizers are mostly synthesized by the Haber-Bosch Process and the high yields achieved by modern agriculture are only possible because of the worldwide use of inorganic nitrogen fertilizers. Introduction Azolla is a heterosporous pteridophyte, with seven species.

In all cases, growth proceeded without reaching a surface-limiting condition, where an increase of thickness, due to the leaf growth, could have changed growth dynamics. Bars represent standard deviation. For the water floating samples, after drying on blotting paper, the biomass was weighed.